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2014
01-26

hdu 2416 Treasure of the Chimp Island-BFS-[解题报告]C++

Treasure of the Chimp Island

问题描述 :

Bob Bennett, the young adventurer, has found the map to the treasure of the Chimp Island, where the ghost zombie pirate LeChimp, the infamous evil pirate of the Caribbeans has hidden somewhere inside the Zimbu Memorial Monument (ZM2). ZM2 is made up of a number of corridors forming a maze. To protect the treasure, LeChimp has placed a number of stone blocks inside the corridors to block the way to the treasure. The map shows the hardness of each stone block which determines how long it takes to destroy the block. ZM2 has a number of gates on the boundary from which Bob can enter the corridors. Fortunately, there may be a pack of dynamites at some gates, so that if Bob enters from such a gate, he may take the pack with him. Each pack has a number of dynamites that can be used to destroy the stone blocks in a much shorter time. Once entered, Bob cannot exit ZM2 and enter again, nor can he walk on the area of other gates (so, he cannot pick more than one pack of dynamites).

The hardness of the stone blocks is an integer between 1 and 9, showing the number of days required to destroy the block. We neglect the time required to travel inside the corridors. Using a dynamite, Bob can destroy a block almost immediately, so we can ignore the time required for it too. The problem is to find the minimum time at which Bob can reach the treasure. He may choose any gate he wants to enter ZM2.

输入:

The input consists of multiple test cases. Each test case contains the map of ZM2 viewed from the above. The map is a rectangular matrix of characters. Bob can move in four directions up, down, left, and right, but cannot move diagonally. He cannot enter a location shown by asterisk characters (*), even using all his dynamites! The character ($) shows the location of the treasure. A digit character (between 1 and 9) shows a stone block of hardness equal to the value of the digit. A hash sign (#) which can appear only on the boundary of the map indicates a gate without a dynamite pack. An uppercase letter on the boundary shows a gate with a pack of dynamites. The letter A shows there is one dynamite in the pack, B shows there are two dynamite in the pack and so on. All other characters on the boundary of the map are asterisks. Corridors are indicated by dots (.). There is a blank line after each test case. The width and the height of the map are at least 3 and at most 100 characters. The last line of the input contains two dash characters (–).

输出:

The input consists of multiple test cases. Each test case contains the map of ZM2 viewed from the above. The map is a rectangular matrix of characters. Bob can move in four directions up, down, left, and right, but cannot move diagonally. He cannot enter a location shown by asterisk characters (*), even using all his dynamites! The character ($) shows the location of the treasure. A digit character (between 1 and 9) shows a stone block of hardness equal to the value of the digit. A hash sign (#) which can appear only on the boundary of the map indicates a gate without a dynamite pack. An uppercase letter on the boundary shows a gate with a pack of dynamites. The letter A shows there is one dynamite in the pack, B shows there are two dynamite in the pack and so on. All other characters on the boundary of the map are asterisks. Corridors are indicated by dots (.). There is a blank line after each test case. The width and the height of the map are at least 3 and at most 100 characters. The last line of the input contains two dash characters (–).

样例输入:

*****#*********
*.1....4..$...*
*..***..2.....*
*..2..*****..2*
*..3..******37A
*****9..56....*
*.....******..*
***CA**********

*****
*$3**
*.2**
***#*

--

样例输出:

1
IMPOSSIBLE

#include<stdio.h>
#include<iostream>
#include<queue>
#include<string.h>
#include<algorithm>
#include<stdlib.h>
#include<cstring>
#include<string>
#define N 20000000
using namespace std;
int n,m,ss;//ss用于存最小时间
int a[105][105][30];//状态数组,第3维是带的炸药个数,前2个是坐标。
string map[105];
int dir[4][2]={{1,0},{0,1},{-1,0},{0,-1}};//用于变换坐标
struct node
{
	int x,y;
	int k,time;//k是携带的炸药包,time是到这里所花的时间
	//重载<运算符,用于优先队列的实现
	friend bool operator < (const node a,const node b)
	{
		return a.time>b.time;
	}
}w,v;
priority_queue<node> q;
bool check(int x,int y)//边境检查
{
	if(x>=0&&x<n&&y>=0&&y<m&&map[x][y]!='*')
		return 1;
	return 0;
}
void bfs()
{
	memset(a,-1,sizeof(a));
	for(int i=0;i<n;i++)//找出所有的门并加入队列
	{
		for(int j=0;j<m;j++)
		{
			if(map[i][j]=='#')
			{
				w.x=i;w.y=j;
				w.time=0;w.k=0;
				map[i][j]='*';
				q.push(w);
			}
			else if(map[i][j]>='A'&&map[i][j]<='Z')
			{
				w.x=i;w.y=j;
				w.time=0;
				w.k=map[i][j]-'A'+1;
				map[i][j]='*';
				q.push(w);
			}
		}
	}
	while(!q.empty())
	{
		v=q.top();
		q.pop();
		for(int i=0;i<4;i++)
		{
			w.x=v.x+dir[i][0];
			w.y=v.y+dir[i][1];
			if(!check(w.x,w.y))
				continue;
			if(map[w.x][w.y]=='.')//如果是路,直接走过去
			{
				w.k=v.k;
				//如果携带w.k个炸药在x,y点的状态没有检查过
				//或者以前的走法没有现在的走法优
				if(a[w.x][w.y][w.k]==-1||a[w.x][w.y][w.k]>v.time)
				{
					w.time=v.time;
					a[w.x][w.y][w.k]=w.time;
					q.push(w);
				}
			}
			else if(map[w.x][w.y]>='1'&&map[w.x][w.y]<='9')
			{
				//炸这个石头
				if(v.k>0&&(a[w.x][w.y][v.k-1]==-1||a[w.x][w.y][v.k-1]>v.time))
				{
					w.k=v.k-1;
					w.time=v.time;
					a[w.x][w.y][w.k]=w.time;
					q.push(w);
				}
				//不炸这个石头
				if(a[w.x][w.y][v.k]==-1||a[w.x][w.y][v.k]>v.time+map[w.x][w.y]-'0')
				{
					w.k=v.k;
					w.time=v.time+map[w.x][w.y]-'0';
					a[w.x][w.y][w.k]=w.time;
					q.push(w);
				}
			}
			else if(map[w.x][w.y]=='$'&&v.time<ss)
			{
				ss=v.time;
			}
		}
	}
}
int main()
{
	while(getline(cin,map[0])&&map[0][0]!='-')
	{
		int i=1;
		while(getline(cin,map[i])&&map[i].size()!=0)
			i++;
		n=i;
		m=map[0].size();
        ss=N;
		bfs();
		if(ss==N)
			printf("IMPOSSIBLE\n");
		else
			printf("%d\n",ss);
	}
	return 0;
}

解题转自:http://blog.csdn.net/makaihong123/article/details/9469607


  1. 我还有个问题想请教一下,就是感觉对于新手来说,递归理解起来有些困难,不知有没有什么好的方法或者什么好的建议?

  2. 第二个方法挺不错。NewHead代表新的头节点,通过递归找到最后一个节点之后,就把这个节点赋给NewHead,然后一直返回返回,中途这个值是没有变化的,一边返回一边把相应的指针方向颠倒,最后结束时返回新的头节点到主函数。

  3. 学算法中的数据结构学到一定程度会乐此不疲的,比如其中的2-3树,类似的红黑树,我甚至可以自己写个逻辑文件系统结构来。